HABER, FRITZ (1868–1934), German physical chemist and Nobel laureate. Haber was born in Breslau, the son of a prosperous chemical and dye merchant and an alderman of the city. After a period in industry and business, he went in 1893 to the Technische Hochschule at Karlsruhe, and in 1906 became professor of physical and electrochemistry. His work on carbon bonds led to a rule bearing his name. Turning to electrochemistry, he wrote Grundriss der technischen Electrochemie   auf theoretische Grundlage (1898) and was a co-developer of the glass electrode. In 1905 he wrote Thermodynamics of Technical Gas Reactions. His most important work, started in 1904, was the synthesis of ammonia from hydrogen and nitrogen. His laboratory demonstration interested Bosch, Bergius, and the Badische Anilin-und Sodafabrik companies, and they eventually developed the process into a commercial operation. Haber was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1918 "for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements"; this work of Haber was to be invaluable to the German military effort in World War I. In 1911 he was made director of the new Kaiser Wilhelm Research Institute in Berlin-Dahlem, and in 1914 this was turned over to war work, particularly gas warfare, starting with chlorine and ending with mustard gas. After Germany's defeat, he reconstituted his Institute, and in the 1920s it became probably the leading center of physical chemistry in the world. Haber was president of the German Chemical Society, and of the Verband deutscher chemischer Vereine (which he created), and after some months spent in Japan he created the Japan Institute in Berlin and Tokyo. Haber left the Jewish faith, and with the Nazi accession to power in 1933 was not immediately threatened but he was ordered to dismiss all the Jews on the staff of his institute. He refused and resigned. His health, already poor, deteriorated. He went to a sanatorium in Switzerland, where he died. In 1952 a tablet was unveiled in Haber's memory at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: M.H. Goran, The Story of Fritz Haber (1967), incl. bibl.; R. Stern, in: YLBI, 8 (1963), 70–102. (Samuel Aaron Miller)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Haber, Fritz — born Dec. 9, 1868, Breslau, Silesia, Prussia died Jan. 29, 1934, Basel, Switz. German physical chemist. After early research in electrochemistry and thermodynamics, he developed, with his brother in law Carl Bosch (1874–1940), the Haber Bosch… …   Universalium

  • Haber, Fritz — (1868 1934)    chemist; awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry for synthesizing ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen. Born in Breslau (now Wroclaw), he studied chemistry to better assist his father s dyestuff firm. His aptitude led, however, to a… …   Historical dictionary of Weimar Republik

  • Haber , Fritz — (1868–1934) German physical chemist Haber, the son of a merchant, was born at Breslau, now Wrocław in Poland. He was educated at Berlin, Heidelberg, Charlottenburg, and Jena, and in 1894 he became an assistant in physical chemistry at the… …   Scientists

  • Haber, Fritz — (1868–1934)    German chemist and Nobel laureate, 1918. Haber developed a process for synthesizing ammonia from hydrogen and nitrogen by combining them under pressure, using iron as a catalyst. The Haber process, as it was called, was adapted for …   Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament

  • Haber,Fritz — Ha·ber (häʹbər), Fritz. 1868 1934. German chemist. He won a 1918 Nobel Prize for the synthetic production of ammonia. * * * …   Universalium

  • Haber, Fritz — ► (1868 1934) Químico alemán. Fue premio Nobel de Química en 1918, compartido con Bosch, por idear un proceso para la obtención del amoniaco. * * * (9 dic. 1868, Breslau, Silesia, Prusia–29 ene. 1934, Basilea, Suiza). Fisicoquímico alemán.… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Haber, Fritz — (1868 1934)    German physical chemist. Born in Breslau, he became director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Research Institute for Chemistry in 1911. He gained the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

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